کتاب آس و پاس در پاریس و لندن

اثر جورج اورول از انتشارات ماهی - مترجم: بهمن دارالشفایی-دهه 1930 میلادی

آس و پاس در پاریس و لندن اولین کتابی است که از اورول منتشر شد. او بری چاپ این کتاب دردسر‌های زیادی کشید؛ دو ناشر آن را در کردند و حتی نویسنده نسخه‌ی دستنویس را به دوستی داد تا آن را بسوزاند. این کتاب روایت اورول است از مقطعی فلاکت‌بار از زندگی‌اش در پاریس و لندن، دورانی که در کنار آدم‌های فرودست جامعه زندگی می‌کرد و برای امرار معاش تن به هر کاری می‌داد. گرچه شهرت اورول به مزرعه‌ی حیوانات و ۱۹۸۴ است، بعضی از طرفدارانش کتاب حاضر را خواندنی‌ترین اثر او می‌دانند.


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Down and Out in Paris and London, George Orwell
Down and Out in Paris and London is the first full-length work by the English author George Orwell, published in 1933. It is a memoir in two parts on the theme of poverty in the two cities. The first part is an account of living in near-destitution in Paris and the experience of casual labour in restaurant kitchens. The second part is a travelogue of life on the road in and around London from the tramps perspective, with descriptions of the types of hostel accommodation available and some of the characters to be found living on the margins.
عنوانها: محرومان پاریس و لندن؛ آس و پاس ها؛ نویسنده: جورج اورول؛ تاریخ نخستین خوانش: روز بیست و یکم ماه جولای سال 2006 میلادی
عنوان: محرومان پاریس و لندن؛ نویسنده: جورج اورول؛ مترجم: اسماعیل کیوانی؛ تهران، تیسفون، 1362؛ در 318 ص؛ موضوع: داستانهای نویسندگان انگلیسی - قرن 20 م
عنوان: آس و پاس ها؛ نویسنده: جورج اورول، مترجم: اکبر تبریزی؛ تبریز، انتشارات بهجت؛ چاپ سوم 1385 در 269 ص، شابک: ایکس - 964667190؛ چاپ دیگر: ترهان، بهجت، 1389؛ شابک: 9789642763474؛
مترجم: آوینا ترنم؛ تهران، هنر پارینه، 1394، در 286 ص؛ شابک: 9786005205558؛
آس و پاس‌ها در پاریس و لندن روایت نویسنده انگلیسی جورج اورول از زندگی فقرا و بی‌خانمان‌ها در پاریس و لندن است. این کتاب در ژانویه 1933 میلادی منتشر شد، و در انتشار این کتاب برای نخستین بار «اریک آرتور بلر» از نام مستعار «جورج اورول»، استفاده کرد. اورول پس از مطالعه تهیدستان «جک لندن» تصمیم به زندگی در میان طبقات محروم و مهاجر در شهرهای پاریس و لندن گرفت. رویدادهای زندگی آمیخته با فقر او، در بهار 1928 میلادی، در مسافرخانه‌ های پاریس، و اشتغالش به ظرفشویی در رستوران‌ها و هتل‌های پاریس، فصل‌های نخست این روایت را تشکیل می‌دهد. راوی در بخشهایی از زندگی خویش در پاریس، با یک افسر سابق روسی، به نام: بوریس، همراه میشود، که به سختی زندگی خویش را میگذراند، و از صاحبخانه یهودیش ناراضی ست. برخی به همین دلیل این کتاب را یهود ستیزانه میدانند. گزارش او از لندن، بیشتر شرح روزگار بی‌خانمان‌های انگلیسی ست، که در پی یافتن بستری برای خوابیدن، از نوانخانه‌ ای به نوانخانه ی دیگر رانده می‌شوند، یا شب‌ها را، در پیاده روی خیابان، میگذرانند. اورول این نوع زندگی را، برای نوشتن گزارشی در اواخر سال 1927 میلادی، تجربه کرده بود. نکته ی تاثیرگذار این روایت، بر خلاف نظر عموم، این است که همه ی بی‌خانمان‌ها اشخاص بیعار، یا پست فطرت نیستند، و در بین آنها اشخاص هنرمند، و روشنفکر نیز، میتوان پیدا کرد. در پایان کتاب اورول پیشنهادهایی برای بهبود زندگی تهیدستان، و بی خانمانها ارائه می‌کند. ... ا. شربیانی

مشاهده لینک اصلی
از اول تا آخر كتاب، انگار در حال پياده‌روي بوده‌اي.. يك پياده‌روي مداوم در كوچه‌پس‌كوچه‌هاي پاريس و لندن.. نه از آن پياده‌روي‌هايي كه باعث شوند گذرت به بخشهاي خوب و رمانتيك و لذت‌بخش شهر بيفتد... برعكس.... انگار روزها در محله‌هاي كثيف و مملو از فقر و فلاكت قدم برداشته‌اي... و شبها را همراه و همگام جورج اورول، در غيرقابل تحمل‌ترين مسافرخانه‌ها و اقامتگاههاي پاريس و لندن، به صبح رسانده‌اي..
همه اين كتاب، روايت فقر است.. نكته دلنشين و برجسته كتاب اين است كه اولا نه از زبان يك فرد گمنام، بلكه از جانب نويسنده 1984 و مزرعه حيوانات، روايت مي‌شود.. و بيان جزئيات قضايا و توصيفهاي اورول، تو را هر چه بيشتر و بيشتر در صحنه‌ها و اتفاقات داستان غرق مي‌كند.. در كنار اين مضمون، لحن اورول كه در قسمت زيادي از بخشها، آميخته به طنز است، اين هنر را دارد كه در غم‌انگيزترين توصيفات داستان هم تو را به خنده بيندازد... يكي از بهترين بخشهاي كتاب هم، آنجاست كه اورول از شخصيتهاي فقير و خيابان‌خوابي در داستان اسم مي‌برد كه برخلاف تصور عموم كه آنها را بي‌ارزش و تنبل و بي‌مصرف مي‌دانند، از فكر و هنر و ويژگيهاي شخصيتي جالبي برخوردارند...
در ضمن، ترجمه (بهمن دارالشفايي) هم عالي بود.
***
بعد از غذا، بوريس آنقدر خوشبين بود كه تاحالا اينطور نديده بودمش. گفت: چي بهت گفتم؟ تقدير جنگ! امروز صبح پنج سو داشتيم. حالا وضعمان را ببين! هميشه گفته‌ام بدست آوردن پول از هر كار ديگري آسانتر است. همين الان ياد دوستي افتادم كه در خيابان فونداري است. بايد برويم و ببينيمش. مردك دزد چهارهزار فرانك سر من كلاه گذاشته. وقتي هشيار است، بزرگترين دزد روي زمين است. اما نكته عجيبش اين است كه وقتي مست مي‌كند كاملا صادق است. فكركنم ساعت شش بعدازظهر ديگر مست شده باشد. احتمال زيادي دارد كه علي‌الحساب صدفرانك بدهد. شايد هم دويست فرانك بدهد. بزن بريم!
به خيابان فونداري رفتيم و طرف را پيدا كرديم. مست بود، ولي پولي به ما نداد. همينكه بوريس و او همديگر را ديدند همانجا در خيابان دعواي لفظي سختي بينشان درگرفت. آن مرد ادعا ميكرد كه يك پني هم به بوريس بدهكار نيست. بلكه اتفاقا اين بوريس است كه چهارهزار فرانك به او بدهكار است. هردوي آنها مدام رو به من ميكردند و نظرم را ميپرسيدند. من آخرش نفهميدم حقيقت ماجرا چه بوده. بعد از اين كه دوساعت تمام، همديگر را دزد خطاب كرده بودند، از من جداشدند و دوتايي رفتند ميگساري...


مشاهده لینک اصلی
Orwell demonstrates his social conscience and empathy for the poor, which I think, makes his more famous attacks on totalitarianism more credible.

This is also an interesting novel to read for a glimpse into Paris and London of that time, between 1900 and 1930. Orwell worked in some restaurants and his view from the kitchen is far less romantic than Hemingway’s perspective from the table.

Not really a classic or a masterpiece, but a book that should be read.

@description@

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Do not read this book if you are unemployed.

Do not read this book if you are homeless.

Do not read this book if you are worried about the tanking economy.

Do not read this book if you have no retirement savings.

Do not read this book if you dont like eating stale bread and margarine.

Do not read this book if you like eating in restaurants.

Do not read this book if you are sensitive to foul odors.

Do not read this book if you are one of those people who carries a hand-sanitizer at all times.

Do not read this book if you are an artist, writer, musician or other creative occupation which certainly guarantees brushes with poverty.

If you do read this book (which I highly recommend) make sure you have some bubble bath on hand as you will need a nice long well-perfumed soak afterwards.

مشاهده لینک اصلی

As anyone who has read 1984 can attest, Orwell is--among other things--a master of disgust, a writer who can describe a squalid apartment building, an aging painted whore or a drunken old man with just the right details to make the readers nose twitch with displeasure, his stomach rise into the throat with revulsion. What makes this book so good is that--although he may continually evoke this reaction in his account of the working and the wandering poor--Orwell never demeans or dismisses the human beings who live in this repulsive environment. The people he describes may be disgusting, but they are often resourceful too, and Orwell makes it clear that it is the economic system itself--not the character flaws of particular individuals caught up in the system--which is to blame for so much squalor and suffering.

I would recommend this book to any one who wishes to read a vivid description of the conditions of those who live beneath the underbelly of society and the stratagems they use to survive, whether they be recently impoverished men endeavoring to maintain respectability, Paris dishwashers sweating through their underground existence, or British tramps enduring the daily bone-wearying trek for a cheap place to lay their heads.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
“It is a feeling of relief, almost of pleasure, at knowing yourself at last genuinely down and out. You have talked so often of going to the dogs - and well, here are the dogs, and you have reached them, and you can stand it. It takes off a lot of anxiety.”

@

In 1927 Eric Arthur Blair A.K.A. George Orwell gives up his job as a policeman in Burma and moves back to his lodgings on Portobello Road in London with the intention of being a writer. Like with many artists, writers, and those that wished to be one or the other, the siren song of Paris beckoned Orwell. In 1928 he moves to The City of Light.

”It was lamplight--that strange purplish gleam of the Paris lamps--and beyond the river the Eiffel Tower flashed from top to bottom with zigzag skysigns, like enormous snakes of fire.”

His lodgings are robbed by an Italian man a trollop he has brought back to his room for what can be presumed for a carnal dalliance, but one must have a proper story for the parents especially when one is soliciting funds. This is really the beginning of a rather abrupt slide into poverty. Little did he know this change of circumstances was going to provide him with the material he needed to get published.

A gagger--beggar or street performer of any kind.

I do hope that everyone has had an opportunity to experience some poverty. When I was in college I had several moments where my gas tank was on E, that amber dot nearly burned a hole in my retina, and well food, skipping a few meals builds character. The one thing that I learned about my brief bouts of impecuniousness was that I didn’t like it. The anxiety of potentially revealing the precarious nature of my affairs was much more excruciating than the discomfort of hunger or even the tension inspired by the keenly tuned ear listening intently for the first cough of an engine starved for gas.

The mind does sharpen when deprived of nutrients.

A moocher--one who begs outright, without pretense of doing a trade.

@
A slice of Orwell’s Paris.

Orwell does become truly down and out barely scraping together enough money to maintain lodging. Everything pawnable or salable is already in the shops and now he must find a job. He tramps for miles all over the city following rumors of employment. He finally lands a position at a hotel restaurant washing dishes. It isn’t particularly difficult work, but the hours are unbelievably long. Since he is on the lowest rung of the very tall totem pole he is roundly cursed by everyone.

”Do you see that? That is the type of plongeur they send us nowadays. Where do you come from, idiot? From Charenton I suppose?” (There is a large lunatic asylum at Charenton.)

“From England,” I said.

“I might have known it. Well, mon cher monsieur, L’Anglais, may I inform you that you are the son of a whore?”

I got this kind of reception every time I went to the kitchen, for I always made some mistake; I was expected to know the work, and was cursed accordingly. From curiosity I counted the number of times I was called maquereau during the day, and it was thirty-nine.


A glimmer--one who watches vacant motor-cars.

@
Down and Out in paris

There is a camaraderie that comes from working long hours, from getting up with aching muscles, and a wool stuffed head from too little sleep. While in college I worked for a used bookstore that was the size of a grocery store. We were always understaffed, sometimes ridiculously understaffed. We needed three cashiers and generally had two. We needed three book buyers and generally had one. It wasn’t infrequent for people to work double shifts, not for the money, but because we couldn’t stand to think of our comrades left facing impossible odds. What was crazy is after we closed the store we would sit out in the parking lot, or when we could afford it go get a drink, and talk about books or about the craziness that happened during our shift until the wee hours of the morning. We were as bonded as soldiers in the trench because we were survivors. We didn’t bother to learn much about newbies until they had been there a month because chances were they would last a week or less.

We were working for $4 an hour.

A drop--money given to a beggar.

@
The endless stream of dirty dishes is truly an Orwellian nightmare.

While working in this fine restaurant Orwell did reveal some things that made me queasy.

”When a steak, for instance, is brought up for the head cook’s inspection, he does not handle it with a fork. He picks it up in his fingers and slaps it down, runs his thumb around the dish and licks it to taste the gravy, runs it round and licks again, the steps back and contemplates the piece of meal like an artist judging a picture, then presses it lovingly into place with his fat, pink fingers, every one of which he has licked a hundred times that morning.”

But the place of course is kept spic and span, right?

”Everywhere in the service quarters dirt festered--a secret vein of dirt, running through the garish hotel like the intestines through a man’s body.”

You may reassure yourself that restaurants are much better regulated now than they were in Paris in the 1920s and they are, but chat with a few people who work in the industry and it may not be as easy to reassure yourself.

A flattie--a policeman.

I always marvel at people that make a complete ass out of themselves berating a waiter in a restaurant. The distance that food must be carried from the cook to the table there is so much time for a waiter to enact some form of petty, but very satisfying revenge on some disrespectful jerk.

To knock off--to steal.

@
”Waiters in good hotels do not wear moustaches, and to show their superiority they decree that plongeurs shall not wear them either; and the cooks wear the moustaches to show their contempt for the waiters”…. Thus Orwell had to shave his moustaches.

Henry Miller was in Paris about the same time as Orwell. Miller wrote his books without worrying about what mommy and daddy might think. Orwell certainly put his remembrances through a strainer and certainly this book does not have the gritty intensity of a Miller novel. The descriptions of his time in the Paris restaurants are superbly drawn. They were certainly my favorite parts of the book. When he gets back to London he spends time tramping through the various charity houses and reveals the absurdity of the way they are run. He also makes a compelling case for changing the public view of who a tramp really is. A quick, enjoyable read, that for me, brought back some surprisingly fond memories of when I REALLY worked for living; and yet, still walked the razor edge of weekly impoverishment.

***3.75 stars out of 5

مشاهده لینک اصلی
this book isnt going to cause anyone to have the huge revelation that @poverty is [email protected] or anything, because - duh - but it also doesnt piss me off the way morgan spurlock pisses me off, because orwell makes his story come alive and there is so much local color, so many individual life stories in here that this book, despite being horribly depressing, is also full of the resourcefulness of man and the resilience of people that have been left by the wayside. it is triumphant, not manipulative.

i liked the part when he was down and out in paris better than the part he was down and out in england. even though he had a handy exit strategy in england, in the form of someone who was willing to lend him money when he was truly and completely broke, and even though he only had to live the tramps life for a month in england before his job started, the english parts were just so much more dismal, so horrifyingly bleak.

in paris, poverty is almost a lark. the accommodations are better, the homeless are allowed to congregate beneath bridges and these is almost a romantic tinge to being penniless.

england is just grim. flat-out grim.

big ups to orwell for his details - the smells and the disease and the horror of unwashed men being forced into cramped quarters are unfortunately very well-rendered and can be quite sickening at times. and the conditions of fine parisian restaurants at the time... shudder. dont read this while you are eating.

but this book will make you want to eat, truly. the days without food, the dizziness, the suffering. i ate like a hog on sunday, and felt very guilty for doing so while reading this, but it left such a hollow in me, i had to fill it somehow.

and - yes, this book was somewhat fabricated, and is like thoreau @in the wilderness,@ but that doesnt make orwells observations any less legitimate or powerful.

thank you for writing such a fine book, george orwell...

come to my blog!

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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